The club didn’t announce details of the deal but said it saw Henderson, 31, “commit his long-term future” to Liverpool.
“I’m obviously very honoured and proud to continue the journey I’ve already been on here,” Henderson said in a statement.
“It’s amazing to finally get it done and just concentrate on looking forward and what the future may hold.
“I’m in a different place of course, as a player and as a person, from when I first walked in. I’ve learned and grown a lot over my time here, and I’ve got to thank a lot of people for that.
— Jordan Henderson (@JHenderson) August 31, 2021
“I’ve loved every minute of it, even when I look back at the tough times, I was still enjoying being a part of this football club. The longer I can do that, the better for me really. I want to be here as long as possible, I’ve always said that.
“To continue this journey is incredible for me and my family, and I hope the fans and the club feel the same way.”
Henderson joined Liverpool from Sunderland in 2011 and has made 394 appearances since, scoring 30 goals.
Earlier in 2021 he was awarded a MBE — an honour Britain gives its citizens for making a positive impact in their line of work — for his services to football and charity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
“Every year is the same, every year is the biggest challenge, the biggest season ahead. I feel as hungry as ever,” he added.
“I feel as hungry as I did when I first walked in 10 years ago, to prove to people that I deserve to be at this football club and give absolutely everything every single day for the badge, for the fans and for each other in this building.
“If we do that, I feel as though we’ve got a good chance of being successful.”